The 24-year-old was a class above her rivals as she finished with 500.9 points, well clear of Germany's Manuela Schmermund in second with Australian Natalie Smith taking bronze.
Zhang set a new Paralympic record in qualifying with 396 points and she was equally accurate in the final with a 104.9 total.
Schmermund finished with 493.6 points and Smith 492.4.
The people of our country are very happy and the leader of our team came to see, as I was the first champion of the GamesZhang Cuiping
Afterwards Zhang admitted she was delighted to make her country proud, saying: 'The people of our country are very happy and the leader of our team came to see, as I was the first champion of the Games.'
Elizabeth Kosmala, the oldest competitor at London 2012 aged 70, was eighth in the final with 488.7.
Kosmala, who competed in her first Games in 1972 in Heidelberg, said: 'Once you get in the final you want to win a medal. So of course I'm disappointed.'
Meanwhile, there was a tense finish to the men's P1-10m Air Pistol - SH1 as Republic of Korea's Park Seakyun won a shoot-off against Turkey's Korhan Yamac to take gold.
The pair were tied on 664.7 points at the end of their 10 shots in the final, but Park then hit a 10.8 against Korhan's 9.9 to take the title.
Park's compatriot Lee Juhee claimed the bronze with 662.7 points.