The Chinese lost to the USA in the final of the Beijing 2008 Games, but gained revenge over their great rivals by beating them in the final of the 2010 World Championships.
In their last match before the knock-out stages, China saw off Finland 5-2 to finish top of Group C having not dropped a point in their four games.
Finland's Maija Somerkivi opened the scoring before Wang Ruixue equalised for the world champions and went on to take her tally for the game to four to help her side to victory.
China player Chen Fengqing said: ‘We have six very good players. We have trained so much that we have a very good understanding. We put so much effort into training.’
Finland also qualify for the last eight and now face Canada, who got the better of the USA 1-0 to finish top of Group D.
It had looked like the match would end in a 0-0 draw after a cagey and uneventful 24 minutes, but Nancy Morin snatched victory for Canada in the final seconds of the match.
Japan and Brazil, who were not in action on Day 6, square off in another of the quarter-finals, while Sweden will face Great Britain after both were victorious in their final group matches.
In Pool C, Anna Sharkey scored a hat-trick as Great Britain beat 2008 bronze medallist Denmark 5-0, who exit the competition without scoring a point, while Malin Gustavsson scored four times as Sweden beat Australia 8-5 in Group D.
In the final Pool A matches in the men’s Goalball competition, world champions Lithuania failed to gain victory for the third game running as they drew 2-2 with a Turkey team that had won their first four group matches.
After scoring 21 goals in their opening two wins, Lithuania then suffered a surprise 12-5 loss to Brazil and drew 5-5 with Sweden and against Turkey, Marius Zibolis scored both goals but that was not enough for victory as Huseyin Alkan and Tuncay Karakaya scored for the Turks to see them top the group.
Lithuania coach Karolis Levickis said: ‘I'm worried that the players - even though they're experienced players - can't cope with their nerves.
I'm worried that the players - even though they're experienced players - can't cope with their nerves.Karolis Levickis
'In the first two games they concentrated, they played freely. They are more tense in the way they play now. They can't cope with the tasks that I give them for the game. They are still making a lot of mistakes.’
Four goals from Jarno Mattila secured an unlikely qualification berth for Finland after their 4-1 victory over Sweden in Group A.
Sweden were favourites going into the match as they only needed a draw to qualify, but Finland completed a fine turnaround after losing their first three group games and in the other game, Romario Diego Marques scored four first half goals as Brazil cruised to a 7-1 victory over Great Britain.