The squad clinched victory with a combined score of 197.030 for their Technical and Free routines, both set to music by Denis Garnizov.
Russia have dominated Synchronised Swimming in recent years, having won every World Championships since 1998 and taking gold at the 2008 Beijing Games.
China were beaten into second place, with a combined score of 194.010, while Spain clinched bronze with 193.12.
We have amazing coaches and we have an amazing team. Of course the other countries here are very good, but I think now the results speak for themselves.Anzhelika Timanina
Russia's Anzhelika Timanina said: 'It was very good, it was really hard work. We're really happy because we've trained really hard and there were a lot of emotions but it ended very well.
'For four girls in our team it is their first Olympics and they are very emotional.'
She said once again Russia had proved that they are the best in the world in this sport.
'We have amazing coaches and we have an amazing team. Of course the other countries here are very good, but I think now the results speak for themselves.'