Becky Hammon made an excellent lay-up to break a 62-62 tie with 13 seconds left, and it then came down to free throws
Neither team did a good job from the line, but Russia did just enough.
Hammon had drawn a foul on her drive, but missed the chance to make it a three-point play.
Natalya Vieru fouled Kuanitra Holingsvorth in the ensuing scramble to send the Turkey centre to the line, but there Holingsvorth could only split her throws to make it 64-63.
Turkey fouled Irina Osipova, who hit her first throw but missed the second, getting lucky when the ball rebounded off Holingsvorth and out of bounds to give Russia possession with 12 seconds left.
Isil Alben fouled Evgeniya Belyakova, who followed a theme in splitting her throws to make it 66-63 with 10 seconds left.
Turkey worked an opening for Vardarli, but her three-point shot bounced back off the rim as time ran out.
'I think today was a really equal game and we just got lucky,' said Russia coach Boris Sokoloyskiy.