Chris Hoy took his Olympic gold medal tally to six with two more, while there were double successes for Jason Kenny and Laura Trott.
In the only events not won by the hosts, Germany's Kristina Vogel and Miriam Welte were victorious in the women's Team Sprint, Lasse Hansen of Denmark triumphed in the men's Omnium and Australia's Anna Meares defeated retiring Briton Victoria Pendleton in the women's Sprint.
After winning men's Keirin gold on the final day of competition on the track, an emotional Hoy said: 'This is very much a team effort.
'People see the final polished product of the British team and they think we must be super confident, we must win all the time it must be easy for us. It's anything but.
'There have been some really difficult moments and to get through them all and succeed here, it's just one of the greatest feelings I've ever had.'
There have been some really difficult moments and to get through them all and succeed here, it's just one of the greatest feelings I've ever had.Chris Hoy
There was double success for Britain in the Keirin, as Pendleton won gold, with Guo Shuang of China second and Lee Wai Sze of Hong Kong third.
Pendleton said afterwards: 'This is the greatest moment in my career so far. A lot of people thought I'd passed my best and I just wanted to prove them wrong, so this does feel pretty good.'
Pendleton and Guo's medals came 24 hours after their opening event of the programme, which did not go to plan.
Guo and her China team-mate Gong Jinjie set two world records in the two-woman, two-lap Team Sprint, but were relegated by officials in the final for a takeover infringement as Germany won gold, with Australia taking bronze.
Jess Varnish and Pendleton had earlier been denied a place in the gold medal ride-off due to a similar decision in the only event in which the Host Nation failed to claim a medal.
Hoy first experienced the elation of victory on the opening day, combining with Philip Hindes and Kenny to win the three-man, three-lap Team Sprint in a world record of 42.600 seconds. France were second, with Germany third.
The men's Team Pursuit was won in scintillating fashion by Britain's Ed Clancy, Geraint Thomas, Pete Kennaugh and Steven Burke.
The quartet clocked 3:51.659 to win by a commanding margin from Australia, who had been anticipated to push the hosts close. Bronze went to New Zealand.
Britain's women emulated the men as Joanna Rowsell, Trott and Dani King won gold in 3:14.051, more than five seconds clear of second-placed USA, with Canada third.
Trott made it a double success with a one-point victory over Sarah Hammer of the USA in the Omnium, where she won three of the six events. Annette Edmondson of Australia took bronze.
Hansen proved his versatility in the corresponding men's event with victory despite crashing heavily in the penultimate event, the scratch race. Bryan Coquard of France was second, with Clancy third.
The men's Sprint competition had a fitting finale, with three-time world champion Gregory Bauge of France in a duel with Kenny for gold.
The Briton prevailed, with Shane Perkins of Australia claiming bronze.
Pendleton was seeking a golden goodbye in the women's Sprint, but Meares, her long-time rival, was victorious while Guo won bronze.