The action begins with the men's -60kg and the women's -48kg classes, with top seed Rishod Sobirov of Uzbekistan aiming to add an Olympic gold to his two successive world titles in the former category.
Japan's Hiroaki Hiraoka, silver medallist at last year's World Championships and the second seed, is hoping to ensure his country is on the podium again.
Judo's birth nation failed to win a medal at -60kgs in Beijing four years ago. Hiraoka takes on Great Britain's Ashley McKenzie first.
It will be a tough Olympic baptism for the 23-year-old Londoner.
'Being the first Team GB fighter up means I have to set the pace and hopefully I can, but I will have a tough first fight against Japan,' he said.
'I want to be the best, I have worked hard to be here and am determined to do the business on the day.'
I want to be the best, I have worked hard to be here and am determined to do the business on the day.Ashley McKenzie
Team GB will have fighters in all weight categories for both men and women under Host Nation places rules.
In the women's competition, Dartford judoka Kelly Edwards, 23, has been handed a bye into the second round, where she will be up against either top seed Tomoko Fukumi of Japan or Spaniard Oiana Blanco.
Fukumi won silver at both the 2010 and 2011 World Championships and is expected to challenge for gold.
Romania's Alina Dumitru will defend her title from Beijing 2008. The 29-year-old will be hoping to go out on a high after announcing earlier this year that she plans to retire after the Games.