Andrea Baldini, 26, had lost the bronze match in the Individual event, but took the favourites to a 45-39 victory in this final over battling seventh seeds Japan, who got silver.
Germany captured bronze by easily beating the United States 45-27.
Baldini said: 'I'm very excited. To take home the gold medal from London 2012 has been our goal for so long and now it feels so good.
'The match against Japan started in a very difficult way for us, but it ended up the sweetest way.'