Sixteen-year-old Australian Brittany Broben was Chen's closest challenger, but even then she was still 55.80 further back.
Pandelela Rinong Pamg took bronze for Malaysia as she edged out a tight pack behind her with a score of 359.20.
Victory for Chen brought her fourth Olympic Games gold medal, and a second of these Games after she teamed up with Wang Hao to win the Synchronised 10 Platform last week.
Chen had been more than 40 points ahead of her rivals in the qualifying rounds and admitted that had taken the pressure off her this evening.
'I'm very relaxed. It's like it's not the Olympic Games,' the 19-year-old said. 'I feel no high pressure, I'm relaxed.
'I feel very pleased to have another gold medal for China.'