The Volleyroos were given little chance against their in-form European rivals but upset the odds to see them off over four sets 25-21, 25-22, 18-25, 25-22.
In the process, they avoided surrendering a two-set lead like they did against Italy on Saturday.
They now sit fourth in Pool A but, should Argentina beat Great Britain by any margin, the Australians' tournament will be over. A 3-0 or 3-1 victory for the Host Nation would send Australia into the last eight.
Thomas Edgar used all of his tall frame to stand toe-to-toe with the fearsome Poland frontline and struck 26 points while doing so, with able support coming from Nathan Roberts, who added 18.
Their finishing position is now dependent on the remainder of today's games, although progression is assured.